elevenM’s Cassie Findlay explores Australia’s new data strategy and makes the case for re-framing our conversations about data to account for both social and economic outcomes.
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“But has the horse has already bolted?” That’s the question senior US officials want companies who’ve applied patches for the highly publicised Microsoft Exchange security breach to ask themselves. The ugly Exchange Server compromise headlines our round-up, which also features an IoT breach that snared businesses across a range of industries, and the latest ransomware tactics.
Summary: Four previously unidentified vulnerabilities in the Microsoft Exchange Server have been exploited by state-sponsored actors operating out of China, with some reports citing as many as 60,000 organisations affected.
Key risk takeaway: Being patched against these vulnerabilities might be giving system administrators a false sense of confidence. Having observed numerous concerted attempts to exploit the flaws, US officials are urging companies to take aggressive action to investigate and remediate compromises that may already have occurred (before patching). Accordingly, in addition to moving fast to release patches, Microsoft has published detailed guidance on its website on how to investigate and remediate the vulnerabilities, and even developed a “one-click mitigation tool” for organisations with smaller or less-resourced security teams. To learn more about how to develop a comprehensive vulnerability management program to drive timely remediation of dangerous security flaws (noting once again that patching alone may be insufficient in Exchange incident), check out our recent blog series here.
Summary: Directors of public firms are expected to soon face greater accountability from cyber risks under the Government’s cyber strategy.
Key risk takeaway: Lack of preparation for cyber risks by boards may soon be punishable, as the Government seeks to make changes to directors’ duties in the second half of 2021. The Government is light on details but has cited preventing customer credentials from ending up on the dark web as a potential example of these new obligations. The introduction of these obligations follows the imposition of director duties on directors of financial institutions by APRA’s Prudential Standard 234. The moves are also part of a broader push for the Defence Department to take more forceful steps to “step in and protect” critical infrastructure companies, even if they are in the private sector.
#cyber #APRA #regulations
Summary: Hacktivists gained access to approximately 150,000 Verkada surveillance cameras around the world after finding the username and password for an administrator account publicly exposed on the internet.
Key risk takeaway: This incident is not only a concrete example of oft-described potential security risks of IOT (not to mention the implications of poor password management). It also highlights that risks and impacts from these devices may be felt differently across a variety of sectors. For example, uncomfortable regulatory conversations could arise for some of Verkada’s clients (which include childcare centres and aged-care facilities), given the cameras have built-in facial recognition technology and can be placed in sensitive locations. This incident also highlights ongoing challenges for organisations in achieving effective security assurance over their supply chains, especially cloud-based suppliers.
#cybersecurity #IOT #suppliersecurity
Summary: Universal Health Services (UHS) has reported losing US$67 million from the September ransomware attack that affected a large range of systems.
Key risk summary: The serious financial implications of ransomware continue to be apparent, with UHS’ heavy losses comprising both lost revenue and increased labour costs. Meanwhile Finnish psychology service Vastaamo, whose ransomware challenges we described in October, has now filed for bankruptcy. In a mark of how lucrative ransomware has become, ransomware operators reportedly pulled in $370 million in profits last year. Still, techniques continue to evolve. Researchers recently observed attackers breaching ‘hypervisor servers’ (which organisations use to manage virtual machines). Doing this allows attackers to encrypt all virtual machines on a system, increasing pressure on victim organisations to pay a ransom. In the face of the continued evolution of ransomware, Australia’s Federal Labor Opposition has now called for a national ransomware strategy comprising a variety of measures including regulations, law enforcement, sanctions, diplomacy, and offensive cyber operations. Some of the thinking in the strategy – e.g. around enforcement and sanctions – also aligns with recent expert calls for a global effort to create a new international collaboration model to tackle ransomware.
#ransomware #cybersecurity #costofdatabreach
Summary: WhatsApp deferred the introduction of new privacy terms in order to buy time to better explain the change.
Key risk takeaway: This is one of many recent examples that show us it is no longer sufficient for online services to have a “take it or leave it” attitude in their privacy terms. Having first taken such an approach with its revised privacy terms, WhatsApp had to scramble to explain the changes after “tens of millions of WhatsApp users started exploring alternatives, such as Signal and Telegram”. More broadly, a recent New York Times editorial also argued that current consent models and the default practice requiring consumers to opt-out of data collection practices undermines privacy and must change. In our recent blog post we explore in detail the adequacy of current approaches to consent, which is being examined under the current review of the Australian Privacy Act.
Summary: TikTok agreed to settle 21 combined class-action lawsuits over invasion of privacy for US $92million.
Key risk takeaway: Disregarding appropriate privacy measures will have financial consequences – whether that’s through regulatory fines, legal settlements (as is the case here) or the long-term erosion of user trust. Complaints from the lawsuits against TikTok alleged a range of issues, from using facial analysis to determine users’ ethnicity, gender, and age to illegal transmissions of private data. And just as TikTok said it didn’t want to take the time to litigate the complaints, it was also rated one of the least trusted digital platforms. Privacy responsiveness and social responsibility from digital platforms are fast becoming market differentiators, with 62% of Americans saying search and social media companies need more regulation.
#privacy #transparency #trust
elevenM’s Cassie Findlay looks at getting the most out of standards. Cassie is a current member of the Standards Australia Committee on Records Management and a former member of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Technical Committee on Records Management. She was lead author of the current edition of the International Standard on records management, ISO 15489.
“Standards are like toothbrushes. Everyone thinks they’re a good idea, but no one wants to use someone else’s.”(origin unknown)
Why pay attention to standards, national or international? Aren’t they just for making sure train tracks in different states are the same gauge? What do they have to do with managing and securing information or with privacy? Do we need standards?
The value of standards for manufacturing or product safety is clear and easy to grasp.
However for areas like privacy, recordkeeping and information security, with all their contingencies, the question arises as to how we can standardise when so often the answer to questions about what to do is ‘it depends’.
The answer lies in what you seek to standardise, and indeed what type of standards products you set out to create.
Of the domains elevenM works in, it could be argued that cyber security and information security have the clearest use cases for standardisation. The ISO 27001 set of standards have a huge profile and wide uptake, and have become embedded in contracts and requirements for doing business internationally. By meeting the requirements for a robust information security management system (ISMS) organisations can signal the readiness of their security capability to the market and to business partners. However this is a domain in which standards have proliferated, particular in cyber security. This was a driver for the work of the NSW Government-sponsored Cyber Security Standards Harmonisation Taskforce, led by AustCyber and Standards Australia, which recently released a report containing a range of recommendations for cyber security standards harmonisation and simplification.
In the world of information management, specifically recordkeeping, strong work has been underway over the last couple of decades to codify and standardise approaches to building recordkeeping systems, tools and processes, in the form of the International Standard ISO 15489 Records Management and its predecessors. In the case of this standard, the recordkeeping profession is not seeking to establish a minimum set of compliance requirements, but rather to describe the optimal approach to building and maintaining key recordkeeping controls and processes, including the work of determining what records to make and keep, and ensuring that recordkeeping is a business enabler – whatever your business. The standard takes a ‘digital first’ approach and supports the work of building good recordkeeping frameworks regardless of format. Complementary to ISO 15489, the ISO 30300 Management systems for records suite offers compliance-focused standards that enable organisations to establish and maintain management systems that enable good recordkeeping, and that can be audited by third parties such as government regulators or independent auditors.
In the privacy world, compliance requirements come, in most jurisdictions, directly from applicable laws (GDPR, Australia’s Privacy Act), and practitioners typically focus on these as opposed to seeking out standards. The United States has a patchwork of regulatory requirements affecting privacy, but has seen widespread adoption of the California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA) for consumer privacy, with other States following suit with similar laws. The US National Standards body, NIST, does however, have a strong track record in standards development for security and now for privacy, in the form of its Cybersecurity Framework, and more recently, its Privacy Framework. However it is important to note that these are not standards, but are voluntary tools issued by NIST to help organisations to manage privacy risk.
The next time your organisation is looking to align a standard, be sure to understand why, and whether:
- meeting the standard helps you establish bonafides to the market, such as via the adoption of the ISO 27001 standards;
- independent auditors and other third parties have signalled they will use the standard to guide their audits, such as the ISO 30300 suite;
- the standard provides your organisation with a useful tool or framework towards best practice, as found in the foundational standard for recordkeeping, ISO 15489; or
- whether regulatory or compliance requirements exist that supersede any standard – and are prescriptive on their own (for example through the Privacy Act and guidance from the OAIC).
The toothbrush gag is one heard often in standards development circles such as ISO Committees, and it perhaps has a limited audience, but the point it makes is a good one in that standards are – and should be – tailored to users and uses. They do not, however, tackle plaque.